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" width="8" height="8"/> More Than 40 million with HIV
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The Poster Formerly Known as Y2A
post Nov 23 2005, 08:11 AM
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With the exception of the Carribbean, the HIV/AIDS rate has increased in all parts of the world including the U.S and Europe particularly with HIV rates increasing in homosexual men and women. The total number has increased by 4.9 million since '04. As you can hear from the NPR audio, the small enclaved nation of Lesotho is going to launch a "nationwide" program to try and get "every person in the country tested" for HIV. The Chinese (from hearing the audio) have also launched a syringe-exchange program, which has proven quite highly effective in reducing HIV incidence where used. Actually, it is quite interesting, we have this very same problem in New Jersey with syringe-exchange programs. I was just reading a piece in the American Journal of Public Health the other day about the syringe exchange program in New York City, it was a study with primary research, and the results were incredible. From the period from 1990 to 2002 the numbers of syringes in exchange went up from 200,000 in 1990 to inevitably 3,000,000 in 2002. The annualized incidence rate 3.55% between 1990-1992 with a max of 5.37 and went down drastically inevitably to an annualized incidence rate of 0.77 with a max of 1.26% in the years between 1999-2002. The increase in syringes and the lowering of the incidence rate had a nearly linear relationship after each year. Things like this really need to be adopted, especially here in New Jersey where the problem is especially hitting hard in places like Newark and Essex County in general.

These are some graphs from that paper on the study in NYC:
(IMG:http://img291.imageshack.us/img291/9254/hivgraph17gr.gif)

(IMG:http://img291.imageshack.us/img291/7059/hivgraph29dp.gif)

http://www.cbc.ca/story/world/national/200...IDS-051121.html

More than 40 million living with HIV, United Nations says
Last Updated Mon, 21 Nov 2005 12:37:26 EST
CBC News
(IMG:http://www.cbc.ca/gfx/pix/unaids_051121.jpg)
More than 40 million people around the world are infected with HIV, the virus linked to AIDS, says a UN report released Monday, and the vast majority may not even be aware they are infected.


UNAIDS Executive Director Peter Piot, speaking in New Delhi, stressed the need for education and prevention around HIV/AIDS as part of the enormous challenge in tackling the epidemic.

"Of people living with HIV, only one in 10 has been tested and knows that he or she is infected," Piot said. He also said that less than one in five people at risk of becoming infected has access to basic health prevention.

"The gap on HIV prevention is just enormous, even in countries with high infection rates."

The UN says that since 1981 when the condition was named, more than 25 million people have died of AIDS-related illnesses.

Last year alone some 3.1 million people died, including more than half a million children under the age of 15. Meanwhile, some 4.9 million people became infected last year.

"The reality is that the AIDS epidemic continues to outstrip the global and national efforts to contain it," Piot said.

The new report says the overall number of people living with HIV has continued to increase in all parts of the world except the Caribbean.

It calls for a concerted effort to promote prevention and treatment simultaneously, not "in isolation from each other."

The figure of 40.3 million infected was based on data gathered for the year 2004 and is an increase from the previous year in which an estimated 37.5 million people were infected.

In Canada, the UN says the number of reported new annual HIV infections has risen by 20 per cent in the past five years and women now are over one-quarter of all new cases.

"Among women, those aged 15-29 years appear to be most at risk," the report says.

In terms of the global picture, the sub-Saharan part of Africa continues to be the most affected region with 64 per cent of all new infections happening there.

However, the biggest jump in HIV infections was in Eastern Europe, Central Asia and in East Asia.

The UNAIDS report says the world will spend $9 billion US this coming year to combat HIV infection. But the organization says $15 billion is needed.

One big push right now is to focus on children whose mothers are infected.

"Without HIV prevention measures, about 35 per cent of children born to HIV-positive women will contract the virus," the report says.

"The key to protecting the children is preventing infection in parents," Piot said.

"The global response to AIDS has gained real momentum in the past decade, so much so that for the first time we can hope to get ahead of the epidemic."

NPR's All Things Considered (with audio)

AIDS Epidemic Worsens in Southern Africa
by Brenda Wilson

(IMG:http://www.npr.org/news/images/2005/nov/21/unaids200.jpg)
Some 40 million people are estimated to be living with HIV worldwide. (Numbers in parentheses represent the range of estimates). UNAIDS

All Things Considered, November 21, 2005 The global HIV epidemic continues to expand, with more than 40 million people now estimated to have the AIDS virus, up 2 million since 2004. But in some countries prevention efforts are finally starting to pay off, the United Nations and World Health Organization say in a new report.

HIV continues to spread at an alarming rate in southern Africa, where more than 30 percent of the pregnant women who came to clinics tested positive for the virus.

The number of people with HIV increased in every region of the world except the Caribbean. That includes the United States and Europe, where rates of infection were up among women and gay men. Dr. Jim Kim, the director of the World Health Organization's AIDS division says the most worrisome news came from southern Africa.

In Swaziland, for example, 43 percent of the pregnant women who visited clinics tested positive for HIV. "These are just horrendous, horrific numbers," Kim says.

The report says AIDS continues to grow at an alarming rate in South Africa, with 29.5 percent of women attending prenatal clinics testing positive in 2004. That country's epidemic, "one of the largest in the world, shows no sign of relenting," the report says.

There were bright spots in the report. Kenya, Uganda and Zimbabwe showed a decline in overall rates of infection last year. Surveys show that in Zimbabwe people are limiting the number of partners and using condoms, says George Lott, an epidemiologist for WHO.

This post has been edited by The Poster Formerly Known as Y2A: Nov 23 2005, 08:17 AM
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Russian
post Nov 23 2005, 12:30 PM
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coincidentally, HIV is also responsible for one of the best breakthroughs in molecular biology.


An enzyme isolated from HIV, RNA reverse transcriptase is now widely used in genetic engineering.
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The Poster Formerly Known as Y2A
post Nov 23 2005, 08:00 PM
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QUOTE(Russian @ Nov 23 2005, 07:30 AM)
coincidentally, HIV is also responsible for one of the best breakthroughs in molecular biology.
An enzyme isolated from HIV, RNA reverse transcriptase is now widely used in genetic engineering.
*


Indeed, to turn RNA to DNA. Anyone know why retroviruses are so rare? Only two strains of HIV and two strains of HTLV have reverse transcriptase.

This post has been edited by The Poster Formerly Known as Y2A: Nov 23 2005, 08:01 PM
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necrolyte
post Nov 24 2005, 12:31 AM
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To be honest Im suprised its not higher.
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Sovy Kurosei
post Nov 25 2005, 12:06 PM
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I'm sure going to cancel my travel plans to sub-saharan Africa, that is for sure.
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gnuneo
post Nov 25 2005, 02:59 PM
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http://www.iicd-volunteer.org/tce/tceoncnn.htm

its not a perfect organisation by any means, but the TCE program is now widely acknolwedged to be one of the mian causes behind the drop in growth of the HIV virus in SSafrica, and the model has been used successfully in the countries in africa that have even seen a drop in numbers.

a CNN report is attached to the page.
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miltonfriedman
post Nov 25 2005, 09:34 PM
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a barrier to combating HIV effecitvely is the lack of psychologists in the global discussion. we see geneticists, economist, virologists, and pharmacuetical companies getting their limelights, the fundamental change in sexual behavior can only be done through psychological services and research. Sadly, it is also an area that has been largely ignored.
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gnuneo
post Nov 25 2005, 09:42 PM
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true - the west has ignored the use of ethnologists in favour of 'hard science', presumably becuase the soft, or non-technological techniques psychologists and ethnologists would endorse are not so likely to make money for western coporations.

also because such people may start asking questions about certain conditions in SSafrica etc, and how things got to be that way.

and also because the value based sciences are far too often looked down upon in the western decision making structures.


now, when we can make, market and sell a pill, thats a very different matter. :angry:
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miltonfriedman
post Nov 25 2005, 10:32 PM
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incorrect. psychologists would have no place in this issue without the necessary funding, technology, and research. the west has also not ignored the ethnic issue, consider the fact that psychological research is primarily done in the US.

please stop turning my point into yet another anti-West, anti-corporation ramble.
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gnuneo
post Nov 25 2005, 11:09 PM
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incorrect yourself.

i have been *involved* with psychologists and ethnologists about the problem of AIDS in SSafrica, and to a person they would agree with my statement.

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miltonfriedman
post Nov 25 2005, 11:19 PM
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by involved do you mean a random conversation you have had with someone? and also consider that you can't speak any African dialects, the person who is involved is sure to be of Western decent. Wow, that just totally destroyed your notion that the "West" ignored ethnic issues, hmm?

why fake any expertise? one would think involvement means something more than posting on UP.

This post has been edited by miltonfriedman: Nov 25 2005, 11:21 PM
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gnuneo
post Nov 25 2005, 11:36 PM
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ROTFLMAO - you silly fool, i think you've entirely forgotten that i worked inthe development sector. "random people"? hardly, try people who have dedicated their lives to reducing the impact of HIV/AIDS upon SSafrica - people who know FAR more than either you or i.

as for "african dialects", i think you actually mean "african languages", and yes, i learned a bit of chichewa, although not much and i've forgotten pretty much all of it. It wasn't related to my life, and it wasnt necessary - i was employed to teach pedagogic techniques and general studies, and theinstruction was naturally al in english, i didnt have time, nor to be entirely honest any inclination to learn chichewa properly.

but then my interest in africa as a future part of my life is virtually nil - but at least i HAVE been there, and seen the conditions, and had hands on experience of the problems they face, and indeed of the 'solutions' offered to them by western govts and corps, and of the NGO's that are actualy having an effect on the problems.

am i an expert? hell no, nor do i ever pretend to be, but unlike you i am hardly at "posting on U-P" level of knowledge and experience.

as for the person being of "western descent", LMAO. Most field officers i knew in malawi were of SSafrican descent, although there ware also americans and danes amongst others who had dedicated their lives (by living there, and working in the field permanently) whom i discussed with.

lets put it this way - i am no expert, nor are you - but i probably have more experience than you, and i am not trying to tell *you* to shut-up due to *your* lacks.


see things clearly now?
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miltonfriedman
post Nov 25 2005, 11:42 PM
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indeed, so a random conversation is about your only experience?
now, moving on...

so, as i was saying earlier, perhaps we may have spent too much attention on HIV. perhaps resources should be divested into "cheaper" diseases like malaria and basic knowledge in hygiene.

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gnuneo
post Nov 26 2005, 12:17 AM
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no.

not AT ALL.


HIV/AIDS is ravaging communities in ways that even a malaria epidemic simply can't do, HIV/AIDS is killing *precisely* those citizens who would not be dieing from malaria, the adults of working age who have already built up large immunity to malaria. It is killing parents, teachers, farmers, workers - EVERYONE.

and in fact the measures against it do not have to be incredibly expensive drugs from the west, if you had even bothered to follow the link i provided and read on teh TCE program, you would realise that its a *very* cost effective program that has been extremely effective in slowing the spread of the disease, and mitigating the effects on those communities already devastated.

it is unfortunately run by an organisation with a less than spotless reputation, however the program itself has been very highly commended globally, and emulated in many countries.

and its work is indeed using ethnological techniques to bring the basic teachings to the villages, to help break down centuries old tradition and inevitable suspicion of westerners and their intentions, which lets face it are entirely justified - thats not leftist self-hatred, its simple common sense considering the history of the region - especially how its taught in these countries.

so, for once you were right - yet its so typical you have to try to attack someone else instead of working together. God milt, get the hell out of your hole and DO SOMETHING in the world to increase your self esteem.

look at the link i posted.
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The Poster Formerly Known as Y2A
post Nov 26 2005, 03:27 AM
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Stop hijacking my thread! :angry:

Anyway way, back to syringe exchange programs, I found an article titled "Public opinion about syringe exchange programmes in the USA: an analysis of national surveys" in an academic journal called The International Journal of Drug Policy which studied 16 different national survey's done in the United States regarding public opinion about SEPs. Notice how in the surveys the "opinions" have substantial change depending on how the questions are asked i.e., people are more likely to disapprove if they are referred to as "drug addicts" rather than intravenous drug users. I found it quite interesting. The following is the abstract from the piece followed by a table on the piece showing results of the national surveys.

QUOTE
Abstract
Background: Despite scientific evidence demonstrating their effectiveness, syringe exchange programs (SEPs) have not been as widely embraced by policy-makers in the USA as in some other nations. One reason for this disjunction between science and policy may be the effect of public opinion.

Methods: To better understand the role of public opinion in shaping SEP policies, we undertook a systematic search for all reported U.S. national surveys asking about support or opposition to SEPs. Relevant polls were identified through a national database of public opinion questions, and a similar search of a newspaper database. We present the survey findings. The wording of poll questions and the agenda of organisations sponsoring the polls are also examined.

Results: Twenty-one questions from 14 different polls conducted from 1987 to 2000 were identified. Support for SEPs ranged from 29 to 66%. Surveys conducted by organisations with a public health agenda were more likely to suggest support for SEPs than those sponsored by organisations with a "family values" perspective. Question wording appeared to strongly influence support for SEPs. Poll questions that referred to "drug addicts" were less likely to indicate majority support for SEPs than those that avoided loaded terms or that provided public health information to respondents.

Discussion: Public opinion regarding SEPs is very malleable, strongly affected by question wording or other biases of organisations sponsoring the polls. Therefore, there may be no clear national consensus on the desirability of SEPs. Our findings are particularly relevant for national policy, such as federal funding for SEPs.

Table 1. Public support for syringe exchange programs in US national surveys
(IMG:http://img413.imageshack.us/img413/1180/nationalsurveys1hr.th.gif)

This post has been edited by The Poster Formerly Known as Y2A: Nov 26 2005, 03:37 AM
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miltonfriedman
post Nov 26 2005, 03:11 PM
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i wouldnt put too much weight on these sorts of studies. One, the journal is not of high quality (let's face it-- if i haven't heard of it, then it cannot be that good.) Two, surveys are always prone to leading questions. The most urgent question, imo, is the cost of R&D and sexual behavior. Shouldn't we be spending more time and money on curable diseases, instead of HIV? And, instead of making vaccines, should we just send 10,000 psychologists to get people change their minds about sex? Drugs won't do much good if people keep engage in risky sexual behaviors.

oh, and that reminds me of one thing- there is a survey project in Univ of Chicago that analyze and collect suveys on thousands of different topics. If I found the url for its website I will surely post it in here.

This post has been edited by miltonfriedman: Nov 26 2005, 03:12 PM
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Thor of the Orange Hammer
post Nov 27 2005, 11:49 AM
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milton,

QUOTE
The most urgent question, imo, is the cost of R&D and sexual behavior.



Good God milton and I agree on something without having to argue about it.

Also don't disregard the behavior of the drug Addicts (oops I'm sorry IV Drug users).

Y2A,

One of the problems with supporting needle exchange programs for many is they are not dealing with the whole problem, just a small part. To be quite frank education is going to be the best weapon on this desease.
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Mr Beer
post Nov 27 2005, 09:22 PM
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Yah, but I'm guessing that needle exchange is one of the cheapest practical things you can do.
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Sephiroth
post Nov 27 2005, 10:59 PM
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Education would be a great way to change the course of this epidemic. Now to change the mind of that idiot in South Africa.
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gnuneo
post Nov 28 2005, 01:38 PM
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however the main method of transmission in SSafrica is certainly not shared needles, it is unprotected sex with prostitutes.

needle exchange programs work well inthe areas that the main method of transmnission is needle sharing, such as depressed cities inthe west.


what africa needs is education, education about sexual habits and protection (and easier access to protection such as condoms), and education about how to ensure a good diet and living pattern once they have already caught HIV.

a hell of a lot of people die of starvation in these countries (yes, even today - can you imagine starving to death?), but because they had HIV/AIDS it is blamed on the AIDS. The conditions for most of the population there is simply mindbogglingly horrific, although like all mankind they simply live with it, and hope one day that either they or their children can "escape"* to europe or the US.



*escape is literally how they view it. And with very good reason too. :(
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post Dec 1 2005, 02:22 PM
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Be responsible.
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gnuneo
post Dec 1 2005, 02:27 PM
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::wonders when cheney will run out and demand the *condom* be covered... <_< ::
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