IPB

Welcome Guest ( Log In | Register )

 
Reply to this topicStart new topic
> Sino-African economic ties expanding, outcompeting the West
necrolyte
post Oct 25 2006, 08:33 AM
Post #1


a playa hater
*********

Group: Members
Posts: 16,544
Joined: 21-February 03
Member No.: 271



http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/6079838.stm

Economically, this could be fantastic for both sides. Dealing with corruption in Africa is a must, but the infrastructure is the really important point. I'd just point out that Chinese ties to Africa in part have spurned on the Darfur crisis.

QUOTE
Viewpoint: China becomes Africa's suitor
By Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala
Former Nigerian finance minister


Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala was Nigerian finance minister until very recently

The West is in a panic. There is a new suitor on the block vying for Africa's attention.

China, with nearly $1 trillion in reserves and a voracious appetite for natural resources, has decided to spend some of its billions of dollars in savings to secure access to the oil, gas, copper, coal and other mineral riches that lie beneath the soil of many African countries.

China's aggressive - sometimes brazen - approach is causing angst among Africa's traditional partners.

I have heard China called the new colonial master.

'New power'

There is general unease about the potential moral hazard of an Africa whose debt has been cancelled by the West taking the opportunity to accumulate new debt from China.

There is no doubt that China is a new power to be reckoned with in Africa.


China knows what it means to be poor and has evolved a successful wealth creation formula that it is willing to share with African countries.

There is also no doubt that this new economic giant is pragmatic - almost to a fault - when it comes to making deals in Africa. The nature of a country or its leadership carries little weight against China's need for natural resources.

Not for China the niceties of human rights, nor long debates on macroeconomic conditionalities, and structural reform.

China is ready to transform savings into investment projects in Africa in exchange for access to mining rights.

'Economic growth'

It is true that African countries need to be wary that old trappings of bondage are not exchanged for shiny new ones - whatever form they may assume.

Nevertheless, there is more to this China-Africa relationship than meets the eye.


China is paying to secure access to African oil

African countries are clear that when it comes to economic growth and transformation, China has much to offer that is relevant to present-day Africa.

China knows what it means to be poor, and has evolved a successful wealth creation formula that it is willing to share with African countries.

Africa's need for infrastructure investments - estimated at $20bn a year for the next decade - is understood and supported by China.

'Fresh approach'

When I asked the Chinese how we could get a growth rate of 10%, like theirs, their answer was simple.

Infrastructure - infrastructure and discipline.

China is thus willing to invest in railways, roads, ports and rural telephony in various African countries as part of its winning formula for economic development.

This is an area considered too risky by many of Africa's traditional partners.

China provides an alternative viewpoint, a fresh approach that diversifies and enriches the spectrum of Africa's interlocutors.

For that reason, China should be left alone to forge its unique partnership with African countries and the West must simply learn to compete.
Go to the top of the page
 
+Quote Post
gnuneo
post Oct 25 2006, 04:57 PM
Post #2


Goddess.
*********

Group: Members
Posts: 10,757
Joined: 17-June 02
From: over..... there.
Member No.: 42



a new colonialism, with less hypocracy (human rights groups being used to criticise whilst western leaders maintain the economic stranglehold and support the dictators).

this will likely be the same without the human rights groups.


just what africa needs - a new influx of marxism/maoism.
Go to the top of the page
 
+Quote Post
Flyer_Bear
post Oct 26 2006, 09:27 AM
Post #3


Just say its Allah's will and forget the pesky details
Group Icon

Group: Forum Donor

Posts: 1,678
Joined: 27-February 04
From: Cambridge, baby, CAMBRIDGE!
Member No.: 659



QUOTE(gnuneo @ Oct 25 2006, 05:57 PM) [snapback]419908[/snapback]

just what africa needs - a new influx of marxism/maoism.


Are you being sarcastic?
Go to the top of the page
 
+Quote Post
necrolyte
post Oct 26 2006, 10:46 AM
Post #4


a playa hater
*********

Group: Members
Posts: 16,544
Joined: 21-February 03
Member No.: 271



QUOTE(Flyer_Bear @ Oct 26 2006, 09:27 AM) [snapback]420114[/snapback]

Are you being sarcastic?


The Maoism part tells me yes, considering Mao killed millions of people and Marxism is really an industrial-era perspective (not nessicarily applicable to Africa), as well as the fact that China today has only a passing loyalty to Maoist/Marxist thought.

But Africa does need more socially-oriented governments with a firm ideological basis to reduce corruption, increase infrastructure spending (which is best done by the state), improve the lot of the poor, improve education, improve health care, improve family planning and birth control, and create a strong judicial and police system. Some land redistribution, some contract renegotiation with big businesses, and other such things can increase state revenue, increase the standards of tribesmen, and improve worker's standards.

More importantly, before you can have all that, you need the infrastructure that China is offering to help build. Most of the European infrastructure is degrading, and was often limited in scope in the first place (as it was literally only designed to help them project force and move resources).
Go to the top of the page
 
+Quote Post
gnuneo
post Oct 26 2006, 02:55 PM
Post #5


Goddess.
*********

Group: Members
Posts: 10,757
Joined: 17-June 02
From: over..... there.
Member No.: 42



QUOTE
Are you being sarcastic?


see, this is the problem when i use less smilies.

yes, i was most certainly being sarcastic.
Go to the top of the page
 
+Quote Post
Thor of the Oran...
post Oct 27 2006, 10:38 AM
Post #6


God
********

Group: Members
Posts: 9,273
Joined: 17-August 02
From: The Old Line State
Member No.: 110



gnuneo

You and I actually agree on something. The problem is we have different ways of going about it.

The chicoms are not doing any thing that isn't in thier intrests and you can bet your bottom dollar they will corrupt the existing governments while strengthening the Marxists and Maoists.
Go to the top of the page
 
+Quote Post
miltonfriedman
post Oct 27 2006, 02:06 PM
Post #7


tenured. can't touch me.
*********

Group: JFTD
Posts: 10,273
Joined: 8-September 02
Member No.: 164



QUOTE(Thor of the Orange Hammer @ Oct 27 2006, 04:38 AM) [snapback]420320[/snapback]

gnuneo

You and I actually agree on something. The problem is we have different ways of going about it.

The chicoms are not doing any thing that isn't in thier intrests and you can bet your bottom dollar they will corrupt the existing governments while strengthening the Marxists and Maoists.

hahahahaahahaahhhahaaha. did you also know that floride in your water is an agent for mind control?
Go to the top of the page
 
+Quote Post
gnuneo
post Oct 27 2006, 02:11 PM
Post #8


Goddess.
*********

Group: Members
Posts: 10,757
Joined: 17-June 02
From: over..... there.
Member No.: 42



China's Policy in the Gulf Region: From Neglect to Necessity
Drafted By: Julian Madsen
http://www.pinr.com

China is a relatively new player in the Middle East and in the Persian Gulf in particular. Whereas Egypt was the first Arab country to establish diplomatic relations with China, it was not until 1990 that Beijing had established ties with all of the littoral states of the Gulf Cooperation Council (G.C.C.).

The G.C.C. consists of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, Bahrain and Qatar. Throughout the Cold War, China regarded the Persian Gulf states as geographically remote since this was a time when Beijing was focused on consolidating its position in Northeast and Southeast Asia. Partly explaining China's neglect, Beijing did not pay serious attention to energy security in general and oil security in particular until 1993 when it became a net oil importing country.

Equally, the conservative Gulf monarchies had concentrated their efforts on the United States, fearing the threat of both global communism and Arab nationalism that China paid homage to. Saudi Arabia was the last G.C.C. country to establish ties with China in July 1990. All of its smaller neighbors had exchanged diplomats with China by then, some much earlier: Kuwait on March 22, 1971; Oman on May 25, 1978; the United Arab Emirates on November 1, 1984; Qatar on July 9, 1988; and Bahrain on April 18, 1989.

Sino-G.C.C. relations until recently could be characterized as being generally lackluster and uneventful. This has changed, however, and in the past few years relations have flourished. Most noticeably, Beijing has rapidly widened and extended its links with the region, substantially upgrading economic ties. Arab countries are currently China's eighth largest trading partner; the Gulf States represent the backbone of the Arab trade bloc.

Since 1991, China-G.C.C. trade has surged from US$1.5 billion to $20 billion in 2004. In 2005, trade skyrocketed again, climbing to $33.8 billion, 36 percent more than that in the previous year. Total region wide Sino-Arab trade stands at $36.7 billion, underscoring the G.C.C.'s dominance in Arab trade with China. At the same time, China has signed deals with the G.C.C.'s large neighbor Iran worth more than $100 billion. [See: "China and Iran Strengthen their Bilateral Relationship"]

China's Resource Offensive in the Gulf

Whereas Chinese policies are clearly aimed at securing access to oil that is so vital to China's power hungry and rapidly growing economy, energy is not the only agent that is driving China's diplomatic offensive. China is also seeking to gain a foothold in a region that increasingly resents the U.S. presence. In doing so, China hopes to gently challenge American control by having greater influence in the region, which would complement and project China's global ambitions. Beijing has been for a long time what historian John Gittings calls a "status-quo power that often punches below its weight in international politics." China's policy toward the G.C.C. is one element in Beijing's overall goal of addressing this.

Nevertheless, whereas oil is not the only factor behind Beijing's thinking, the importance of energy cannot be underestimated when examining Sino-Arab relations. China is the world's second-biggest consumer of oil and third-biggest importer. China's oil consumption surpassed Japan's in 2003 and now stands at 6.5 million barrels per day, compared to 20 million barrels per day for the United States.

Chinese oil demand has been rising at an astonishing rate -- increasing on average per annum by more than one million barrels per day, about 40 percent of the world's increased demand and a major influence on the record high international prices for oil. The International Energy Agency (I.E.A.) predicts that by 2030, Chinese imports will equal U.S. imports, impressing upon China the need to ensure a stable supply of oil.

The director of energy economics and development strategy at China's National Development and Reform Commission, Gao Shixian, estimates that by 2010 oil will account for between 51.4 percent and 52.6 percent of China's energy needs, up from 29.1 percent in 2000. According to the I.E.A., China currently imports 32 percent of its oil, but this is likely to double between now and the end of the decade. China's gas consumption is rising at an even faster pace, with imports projected to increase from zero in 2000 to 20-25 million cubic meters by 2010.

Today, 58 percent of China's oil imports come from the Middle East, mostly from the G.C.C. states. China has adopted a strategy of geographical diversification by investing in foreign oil/gas fields in more than 20 countries including Venezuela, Nigeria and Australia.

Diversification away from the Middle East, however, has its limits. Two-thirds of proven oil reserves are located in the region, mostly in the Persian Gulf. Similarly, many of the oil reserves in non-Middle Eastern countries are rapidly being depleted. The I.E.A. predicts that Chinese oil imports from the Middle East will rise to at least 70 percent by 2015, underpinning that the future of the Chinese economy is inextricably tied to the Middle East. Summing up China's (and the West's) concern, the chief economist of the I.E.A. warned that "we are ending up with 95 percent of the world relying for its economic well-being on decisions made by five or six countries in the Middle East."

The lion's share of G.C.C. trade lies in Chinese imports of oil and exports of cheap textiles. In 2004, China and the G.C.C. states started negotiations on a Free Trade Agreement (F.T.A.). These talks coincided with the new China Arab Forum, a biannual dialogue of leaders from China and the 22 states of the Arab League (which includes the G.C.C. states). The Chinese Ministry of Commerce expects Sino-Arab trade to reach $100 billion by 2010. At the end of 2005, Chinese investment in Arab countries stood at $5 billion, while Arab investment in China was $700 million, according to the Chinese Ministry of Commerce. Trade ties are set to grow further if talks to reach a free trade agreement bear fruit. The third round of negotiations took place in January 2006, and agreement on the F.T.A. is expected to be completed in 2007.

Saudi-China Ties

Of the G.C.C. states, it is unsurprising that China has the closest relations with Saudi Arabia, the world's largest oil producing country. Today, China is Saudi Arabia's fourth largest importer and fifth largest exporter. Saudi Arabia is China's tenth largest importer and biggest oil supplier. The Saudis now account for almost 17 percent of China's oil imports. Trade between the two exceeded $15 billion in 2005, having grown an average of 41 percent a year since 1999, according to the Chinese Ministry of Commerce.

Saudi Arabia's oil exports to China increased to some 500,000 barrels per day in 2005, up from 440,000 barrels in 2004. This is set to increase further with Saudi oil giant Aramco agreeing to provide the China Petroleum and Chemical Corporation (Sinopec) with one million barrels per day by 2010. Abdallah Jum'ah, president of Aramco, described China and Saudi Arabia "as among the most important energy relationships on the planet."

Saudi-China relations reached their zenith in April this year when King Abdullah became the first king since the establishment of ties to visit China. This was King Abdullah's first trip outside the Middle East since ascending to the throne in 2005, potentially signaling a new strategic alignment. During the three day trip, King Abdullah told Chinese legislative chief Wu Bangguo that Saudi Arabia considered China a "truly friendly country" and hoped that their relations would become "better and better."

The summit in Beijing saw the signing of five agreements, including a landmark pact for expanding cooperation in oil, natural gas and minerals, as well as in the economic, trade and technical areas. Taxation agreements were also signed and Saudi Arabia granted China a loan to improve infrastructure in the city of Aksu in China's oil-rich Xinjiang region. Saudi Arabia has also offered Chinese companies investment opportunities in the country's enormous infrastructure sector that includes petrochemicals, gas, desalination, power generation and railways and is worth an estimated $624 billion.

Prior to that, China had also been busy ratcheting up a series of lucrative deals in the region. In March 2005, Sinopec signed an agreement with its Saudi counterpart, Saudi Aramco, to develop natural gas resources near the Ghawar field in the country's east. Ghawar is the largest conventional oil field in the world.

Again in 2005, Saudi Aramco signed a $3.5 billion deal with Exxon Mobil and Sinopec for a joint oil refining and chemicals venture in Fujian Province in southern China. The deal involves the expansion of the existing refinery, a petrochemical plant and a joint marketing venture to operate 600 service stations in the province. Also in Fujian, Aramco said that the two sides agreed on the establishment of two joint ventures for an ethylene plant and marketing efforts in Fujian in 2006, as well as the operation of the joint project of the integrated refining and ethylene production by 2009. Talks are continuing with Sinopec regarding investing in a plant in Qingdao, a northern Chinese port.

China has sought to secure new energy sources and at the same time deepen those existing relations. Sinopec, China's largest oil refiner, is involved in about 120 projects in the Middle East, most of which are in the Gulf, and is seeking more opportunities, according to Chen Tonghai, the company's president. In December 2005, China and O.P.E.C. launched an energy dialogue.

China has also sought the assistance of Saudi Arabia and Kuwait to invest in downstream infrastructure, including oil refineries and petrochemical plants to boost domestic capacity. This includes the recent agreement between Sinopec and Kuwait Petroleum Corp. to develop China's southern Guangdong Province. The deal, which is worth $5 billion, will become the biggest Sino-foreign joint venture in the petrochemicals industry.

Kuwait has said that it is studying a number of other ventures. Kuwait currently provides China with 200,000 barrels of oil per day, which is set to double in the next few years. Similarly, China's Sinopec has a ten percent stake in a Chevron-led international consortium bidding for the $8.5 billion Project Kuwait.

It has been reported that during the 2006-2010 period, Guangdong Province will invest 180 billion yuan (US$22.3 billion) to build five petrochemical bases, namely Dayawan, Maoming-Zhanjiang, Guangzhou, Yamenkou and Shantou-Chaozhou-Jieyang. Additionally, five refining expansion and new refining projects, five ethylene projects and some downstream chemical projects are to be built during the same period, with the assistance of foreign partners.

The Other G.C.C. States

The remaining G.C.C. states have witnessed lower trade volumes compared to Saudi Arabia. Trade has tended to focus on the export of crude oil to China whereas joint projects and sharing of technical expertise has been more limited. Nevertheless, economic ties have increased substantially. Chinese goods are increasingly replacing Western goods throughout the region. No longer considered poor or inferior goods, this trend looks to continue in the event of the China-G.C.C. F.T.A. coming into place.

In 2002, the total volume of trade between China and Oman came to $1.506 billion. By 2004, according to the International Monetary Fund, it had jumped to $4.4 billion. Oman is now China's third largest supplier of oil after Saudi Arabia and Iran. The trade volume between China and the United Arab Emirates amounted to $3.895 billion, with imports from the United Arab Emirates consisting of oil and petroleum based products.

Bilateral trade between China and Kuwait in 2002 was $727 million and has expanded rapidly since then, with a series of high profile deals that were discussed above. The country with the longest relations with China, Kuwait has been the largest supplier of preferential official loans to China among Arab countries. From 1982 to the end of 2001, the Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development had provided China with $620 million of loans on favorable terms. In September 2006, China announced an initial public offering of the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China. The Kuwait Investment Authority intends to buy $720 million worth of shares, with the Qatar Investment Authority planning to spend $206 million.

At the same time, China has sought to capitalize on rapid growth in Qatar, especially in the country's booming construction industry. Whilst the volume of trade has been relatively small, it shows an upsurge; $896 million in 2005, compared to $390 million in 2004 and a tiny $90 million in 1999.

The total volume of trade between Bahrain and China is the least of the G.C.C. countries at just $110 million. This is, in itself, little surprise since Bahrain is the least wealthy of the G.C.C. states because of its lack of oil resources.

Therefore, what are the secrets to China's almost overnight success in forging closer ties? Chinese Foreign Minister Li Zhaoxing has described the appeal of strengthening Sino-Arab relations: "Similar histories, common objectives and wide-ranging shared interests have enabled the two sides to strengthen cooperation."

China has skillfully exploited its comparative advantages. It does not carry the historical baggage of being a colonial power nor has it laid out a vision or a policy to transform the region like the United States. China also has a huge market that is very attractive to rich Gulf investors. Similarly, China has been more opportunistic and willing to engage those whom the United States has sought to isolate including Sudan, Iran and Iraq (under Saddam Hussein). The September 11 attacks and the subsequent difficulties Arabs face getting into the United States has seen a sharp decline in Arab visitors, especially from the Gulf, entering the United States, further tarnishing America's image and presenting opportunities for China.

China has also been busy strengthening its military capacity along its Middle East oil supply routes from Central Asia through to Iran. This is a direct response to the Chinese fear that the United States, as the preeminent power in the Middle East, can act as a "check" against Chinese oil imports and, in doing so, severely damage its economy. As such, the Chinese government wishes to reduce the vulnerability of its Middle Eastern oil supply to U.S. power.

This coincides with Chinese moves to modernize its navy. To date, Beijing has expressed no desire to police the Persian Gulf. Nevertheless, it has clear intentions to boost its presence in the South China Sea and Indian Ocean, and in line with China's emerging power status may someday seek to present a naval presence in the Middle East. [See: "The Modernization of the Chinese Navy"]

Conclusion

China's global strategy, including in the Middle East, has been to avoid antagonizing the United States. Rather, China has sought -- through quiet diplomacy and by boosting trade ties and creating interdependence -- to present itself as an alternative and benign power with a global reach. Yet, its late arrival in the Gulf, and given the United States' entrenched presence and unparalleled power, will prevent China from emerging as a definitive power in the Gulf for the time being. Instead, China will have to be content as a power among secondary powers such as Britain and France. For as long as China can continue to secure energy sources, expand its own exports to the region and present itself as a responsible power, time is on China's hands.

Report Drafted By:
Julian Madsen

Go to the top of the page
 
+Quote Post
necrolyte
post Oct 28 2006, 03:18 AM
Post #9


a playa hater
*********

Group: Members
Posts: 16,544
Joined: 21-February 03
Member No.: 271



QUOTE(Thor of the Orange Hammer @ Oct 27 2006, 10:38 AM) [snapback]420320[/snapback]

gnuneo

You and I actually agree on something. The problem is we have different ways of going about it.

The chicoms are not doing any thing that isn't in thier intrests and you can bet your bottom dollar they will corrupt the existing governments while strengthening the Marxists and Maoists.


Do you really think that the Africans are not knowing as well as the Chinese what they're getting into? That they will do something outside of their interests? These aren't innocent young girls getting taken advantage of by a 62 year old creep.

This post has been edited by necrolyte: Oct 28 2006, 03:19 AM
Go to the top of the page
 
+Quote Post
Shenlong
post Oct 28 2006, 03:31 AM
Post #10


Spilled yogurt~
********

Group: JFTD
Posts: 5,029
Joined: 11-February 03
Member No.: 261



eww we do business with spear chuckers? bad

jk jk

This post has been edited by Shenlong: Oct 28 2006, 03:31 AM
Go to the top of the page
 
+Quote Post
Urquhart
post Oct 28 2006, 03:34 AM
Post #11


moral equivalence
********

Group: Members
Posts: 6,695
Joined: 10-December 02
Member No.: 210



QUOTE

But Africa does need more socially-oriented governments with a firm ideological basis to reduce corruption, increase infrastructure spending (which is best done by the state), improve the lot of the poor, improve education, improve health care, improve family planning and birth control, and create a strong judicial and police system. Some land redistribution, some contract renegotiation with big businesses, and other such things can increase state revenue, increase the standards of tribesmen, and improve worker's standards



yes, land redistribution in tribes that don't even have formal titling.

You are thinking of south america, retard. NEWSFLASH: not all LDC's have the same problems.



I especially like the concept of increasing their state spending WHILE reducing corruption; something that has been shown on numerous studies to have a direct correlation.
Go to the top of the page
 
+Quote Post
necrolyte
post Oct 28 2006, 03:46 AM
Post #12


a playa hater
*********

Group: Members
Posts: 16,544
Joined: 21-February 03
Member No.: 271



I said some land redistribution moron. Obviously you can't redistribute the land in the countries with heavy subsistence farming. Anyways, there are some large plantations in other nations too.

Anyways, very poor countries in Africa still have a lot of corruption. Education, family planning, health services, and infrastructure spending are needed in Africa, and proper oversight can reduce the amount of corruption there too. The corruption is secondary to improving infrastructure and education, especially as those two plus a stronger economy can help REDUCE corruption by giving the people a better grasp of their political opportunities, specifically to remove corrupt officials.
Go to the top of the page
 
+Quote Post
Urquhart
post Oct 28 2006, 03:51 AM
Post #13


moral equivalence
********

Group: Members
Posts: 6,695
Joined: 10-December 02
Member No.: 210



Are you kidding me? Corruption is the most regressive of taxes. And adding oversight will fix that, when you have a general cultural acceptance of it?

Face it, we can play games with you pie in the sky bullshit in rich nations, because when we fuck up, i have to settle only 4 cars, rather then 5. But your sort of silliness is totally inexcusable in the developign world, when your backwards ideas result in widespread famine and pestilence.
Go to the top of the page
 
+Quote Post
necrolyte
post Oct 28 2006, 04:12 AM
Post #14


a playa hater
*********

Group: Members
Posts: 16,544
Joined: 21-February 03
Member No.: 271



QUOTE(Stimulant @ Oct 28 2006, 03:51 AM) [snapback]420476[/snapback]

Are you kidding me? Corruption is the most regressive of taxes. And adding oversight will fix that, when you have a general cultural acceptance of it?

Face it, we can play games with you pie in the sky bullshit in rich nations, because when we fuck up, i have to settle only 4 cars, rather then 5. But your sort of silliness is totally inexcusable in the developign world, when your backwards ideas result in widespread famine and pestilence.


And your sort of silliness keeps societies that are backwards backwards. How the hell can you have the educated middle class that an effective civic society needs without education? How can you have economic growth without infrastructure?
Go to the top of the page
 
+Quote Post
Urquhart
post Oct 28 2006, 04:27 AM
Post #15


moral equivalence
********

Group: Members
Posts: 6,695
Joined: 10-December 02
Member No.: 210



Because in a nation that has ineffective agriculture, and no substantial industry, trying to skip steps of progression and just jump straight to the 20th century simply doesnt' work. The sheer cost of a "middle class" style education won't produce dividends until much later.

Putting their house in order, and reorganizing credit instititions, creating a simplified law systems (and using local systems, such as tribal committees to substitute) etc, should be their first order. Not going from a cesspool to a "scandivian paradise" in one fell action. Seriously, you want to know why they are so backwards? because you ethnocentric cuntsucking losers who think "hay doesn't the state have an infinite budget? Just legislate utopia, and let it be so!" fuck them over in your masturbatory zeal to do good.

But I am done. I am confident in this universe being just; as such, your ineffectiveness is relative to your stupidity. And i have no stomach for argueing with a person who blantantly doesn't know a goddamn thing about which they are talking.
Go to the top of the page
 
+Quote Post
necrolyte
post Oct 28 2006, 07:22 AM
Post #16


a playa hater
*********

Group: Members
Posts: 16,544
Joined: 21-February 03
Member No.: 271



Ummm... I dont think you have any clue what you're talking about.

These societies need higher literacy rates to ensure effective governance. I never said a "scandinavian" middle class education, I just meant enough of an education, both vocational, linguistic and scientifically, to increase their own farm yields, read and understand political issues more effectively, and possibly even communicate more effectively.

Now no it won't pay dividends until much later, but these states DO have the resources to pay for them. Much of these resources are lost in corruption, or are simply taken up by businesses that are given low-tax deals with the government, or are spent on the military. And they will pay dividends. Mexico had a fairly basic, rural education system set up after the Revolution, despite severe economic damage, and it alone did not drive Mexico into debt.

Now here's what's interesting, a lot of African countries DO have high literacy rates. Ghana is 80%, Nigeria is around 70%, the RoC is around 80%. Even the DRC is around 65%. But what they need are people who are well-educated enough to start businesses, to be bureaucrats, and be teachers. But in schools you can also teach more effective agricultural techniques for instance.

The reason that they are backwards is because of bad governance, because of ethnic and civil strife, because of decaying infrastructure, because of Cold War Realpolitic, because of a loss of revenue every time the prices drop on whatever natural resource holds their economy up, because of mismanagement 40-50 years ago during the colonial era. It doesn't have anything to do with westerner progressives.

Now what these nations need are some bright people educated enough to be entrepeneurs, or community leaders to help improve agricultural production. A lot of people are today. Knowledge of English no doubt helps, knowledge of GE crops no doubt helps, and so on.
Go to the top of the page
 
+Quote Post
gnuneo
post Oct 28 2006, 06:32 PM
Post #17


Goddess.
*********

Group: Members
Posts: 10,757
Joined: 17-June 02
From: over..... there.
Member No.: 42



QUOTE
Do you really think that the Africans are not knowing as well as the Chinese what they're getting into? That they will do something outside of their interests? These aren't innocent young girls getting taken advantage of by a 62 year old creep.


the leaders no. But the last thing africa needs is the kind of unrestricted ultra-capitalism that has been installed in china. This would be just another form of colonialism, and certainly just another form of dictatorship.

QUOTE
But Africa does need more socially-oriented governments with a firm ideological basis to reduce corruption, increase infrastructure spending (which is best done by the state), improve the lot of the poor, improve education, improve health care, improve family planning and birth control, and create a strong judicial and police system. Some land redistribution, some contract renegotiation with big businesses, and other such things can increase state revenue, increase the standards of tribesmen, and improve worker's standards


these are exactly the policies that kerala in india has used to raise the living conditions, and political conditions, far out of the previous poverty trap it was in.

QUOTE
I said some land redistribution moron. Obviously you can't redistribute the land in the countries with heavy subsistence farming. Anyways, there are some large plantations in other nations too.


you can however teach how reorganisation into larger units can give productivity gains, even in substinence areas. The key element is ensuring that the land is still held by all the families, and does not come under the ownership of just one powerful one. The kibbutz system would be the best model of all.

QUOTE
Anyways, very poor countries in Africa still have a lot of corruption. Education, family planning, health services, and infrastructure spending are needed in Africa, and proper oversight can reduce the amount of corruption there too. The corruption is secondary to improving infrastructure and education, especially as those two plus a stronger economy can help REDUCE corruption by giving the people a better grasp of their political opportunities, specifically to remove corrupt officials.


teh corruption is primary, injecting more capital through a corrupt system merely makes the corruption worth more, and thus will be defended even stronger. The people already know about corruption, they do not need to be told about it - what is needed is that they are shown it is possible to have a working system that excludes corruption, whereas ATM it is often so endemic that no one beleives or trusts inthe various 'anti-corruption' drives. A major problem in africa is that the africans often just took over the same colonial structures, which merrely changed the colour of the skin of the rulers, and nothing much else changed. Not that it particularly could consdiering african economies were designed to be primary goods exporters, with little 'value added' function. Worst of all, many of those taking over were trained in western universities, and were exposed to marxism - certainly the critique of colonialism that they would have encountered would have been marxist based, which is OK as it *does* explain a certain amount of colonialism - unfortuntely the marxist *solutions* are appalingly retarded, and managed to destroy even the few african economies that managed to struggle upwards.

Of course, the variety of corruption such as the west creating and supporting such organisations as RENAMO in mozambique is rarely mentioned when african corruption is referred to in the media, nor how countries have become impoverished by selling arms to dictators to oppress their people, who if they then manage to depose the dictator find that they still have the billions to pay off for the arms sold him to oppress them. Lets not imagine the western countries and companies that sold the arms didnt know what it would be used for, either.

the corruption that keeps africa impoverished goes far wider than the local conditions.

QUOTE
Are you kidding me? Corruption is the most regressive of taxes.


yes.
QUOTE
And adding oversight will fix that, when you have a general cultural acceptance of it?


how else to reduce it, except by improving conditions of accountability?

QUOTE

And your sort of silliness keeps societies that are backwards backwards. How the hell can you have the educated middle class that an effective civic society needs without education? How can you have economic growth without infrastructure?


you can't.

but http://www.utopia-politics.com/forums/inde...showtopic=33125

could help tremendously.

QUOTE
Because in a nation that has ineffective agriculture, and no substantial industry, trying to skip steps of progression and just jump straight to the 20th century simply doesnt' work. The sheer cost of a "middle class" style education won't produce dividends until much later.


i'm not sure what a 'middle class education' is, there is education period. Africans tend to be extraordinarily pro-education, especially the rural poor, where JCM values are strong, and basic values of learning and education are seen as a way out - unfortunately all too often as a way out of the country, because there are so few opportunites to make a decent life, and even cleaning up on the tube pays more than 95% of all african jobs. What they need more than anything is access to resources, and the introduction of modern pedagogic techniques that can reduce the cost and increase the effectiveness of teaching tremendously - for instance, leanring how to utilise the stronger students in a subject to teach the weaker ones in a good way, can deal with the problems of large class sizes as well as the problem of mixed ability classes, and is a technique now widely used across scandinavia. Its application in africa does not need extra resources, it only needs teaching to teacher students.

A problem in africa is that teh society is still extremely hierarchical, and such thinking is not automatic, and most definitely needs to be learned. This is one of the reasons both why africa can be considered backward, and also why it is remaining backwards.

my students were absolutely astounded when i asked them for *their* opinions on matters, to start discussions - this is unheard of in their educational experience, it took me a fairly long time to get them to understand what i meant by it, african education is still along the lines of Teacher Teaches, Students Sit and Learn (ie memorise). This unquestioning approach to authority is a severe curse in africa.

changing this does not require lots of new reseurces, it requires new techniques to be taught, and new cultural paradigms and parameters will automatically come out of such changes in techniques.



QUOTE
Putting their house in order, and reorganizing credit instititions, creating a simplified law systems (and using local systems, such as tribal committees to substitute) etc, should be their first order. Not going from a cesspool to a "scandivian paradise" in one fell action. Seriously, you want to know why they are so backwards? because you ethnocentric cuntsucking losers who think "hay doesn't the state have an infinite budget? Just legislate utopia, and let it be so!" fuck them over in your masturbatory zeal to do good.


partly this is correct, however putting greater power in the hands of tribal leaders (which is in fact they way they are going) is a tragic mistake. They tend to be anti-innovation, patriarchal, and most certainly anti-democratic. Having said that i am fully in favour of more local decision making, but not at the cost of handing more power to traditionalist, inherited power structures.

a grameen bank style credit institution would be a godsend in africa, and is slowly now being introduced.

QUOTE
But I am done. I am confident in this universe being just; as such, your ineffectiveness is relative to your stupidity. And i have no stomach for argueing with a person who blantantly doesn't know a goddamn thing about which they are talking.


actually in large part youre both correct, stim your dislike of western interference is quite correct in many ways, certainly it is easy to see the tragic consequences from western interference such as colonialism, marxism, selling of arms, and restricting the flow of essential knowledge because of 'copyright', and patents of essential medicines to stop the genocidal consequences of AIDS, and also in some part the irritating smugness of so many aid workers who go out there to help the "backward jungle bunnies" is to blame for quite some problems in itself - especailly when the aid workers tend to live in absolute luxury with cooks, cleaners, drivers, 4x4s, which is where so much of supposed aid money ends up. There are many reason to be annoyed with western interfernce and misapplied 'help', BUT that is no reason to paint the whole aid movement with the same tar brush. Nor is thinking their systems are in some way 'noble savage' systems and we should respect them - fuck that, if belguim is using an inferior education system then i will call them on it, and just because these people are black does not mean i will not do the same for them.

necro, youre also right in african needs infrastructure development, but you also have to be aware that many of these supposed projects are little more than scams that sound nice, the huge infrastructure projects that teh west supported in africa nearly always ended up being albatrosses around the necks of the people, often because as stim said, there is little point in ttrying to jump levels of development - the scenario of a farm being given a tractor that breaks down from a small fault very soon, and then just rots away because there is neither parts nor skillled mechanics, whilst the 'western aid' budget looks good on paper, as does the sales figures of the tractor factory is a depressingly common one.

Equally, building huge hydroelectric projects is largely wasted when all the knowedge and building resources have to come from the west, the maintenance and parts have to come from the west, whilst teh electricity cannot be sold locally at a rate to cover the costs, let alone be able to repay the loans required to build them.and to be frank, as neither of you have actually been there and lived there, its a little cheeky to claim your debating partner doesnt know what he's talking about.

Go to the top of the page
 
+Quote Post
Urquhart
post Oct 28 2006, 10:57 PM
Post #18


moral equivalence
********

Group: Members
Posts: 6,695
Joined: 10-December 02
Member No.: 210



QUOTE
neither of you have actually been there and lived there, its a little cheeky to claim your debating partner doesnt know what he's talking about.



I welcome the end of your criticism of Americans with open arms.

And necro doesn't know what the hell he is talking about. Replacing pre-existing systems with "Western" systems is just cultural arrogance. The slight levels of rule of law, cultivated over millenia in the forms of their tribal systems should be augmented, not ripped up. And a great deal of "infrastructure" is of no use until they are capable of producing surpluses.
Go to the top of the page
 
+Quote Post
necrolyte
post Oct 29 2006, 12:18 AM
Post #19


a playa hater
*********

Group: Members
Posts: 16,544
Joined: 21-February 03
Member No.: 271



QUOTE(Stimulant @ Oct 28 2006, 10:57 PM) [snapback]420585[/snapback]

I welcome the end of your criticism of Americans with open arms.

And necro doesn't know what the hell he is talking about. Replacing pre-existing systems with "Western" systems is just cultural arrogance. The slight levels of rule of law, cultivated over millenia in the forms of their tribal systems should be augmented, not ripped up. And a great deal of "infrastructure" is of no use until they are capable of producing surpluses.


Who the fuck said replace tribal law and tribal systems? No, you can integrate modern ideas with the local methods of thought. South Africa is doing it-the Zulu tribe has significant cultural sway in Natal, yet South Africa is also improving infrastructure and schools.

Now the infrastructure won't be of much use, but (1) it will give them INCENTIVE to create surpluses, of which now there is less, and (2) Provide them the means by helping them purchase tools, go to banks to get small loans, and so on, and (3) import workers from other parts of the country.
Go to the top of the page
 
+Quote Post
gnuneo
post Oct 29 2006, 02:26 AM
Post #20


Goddess.
*********

Group: Members
Posts: 10,757
Joined: 17-June 02
From: over..... there.
Member No.: 42



QUOTE
I welcome the end of your criticism of Americans with open arms.


(IMG:style_emoticons/default/tongue.gif)

tell you what though, when you have spent 5yrs arguing with africans daily on a netforum, i'll grant you the right to claim you have some knowledge of them even without having been there. (IMG:style_emoticons/default/smile.gif)
Go to the top of the page
 
+Quote Post
gnuneo
post Nov 3 2006, 08:14 AM
Post #21


Goddess.
*********

Group: Members
Posts: 10,757
Joined: 17-June 02
From: over..... there.
Member No.: 42



Upcoming Summit Highlights Africa's Importance to China
Drafted By: Adam Wolfe
http://www.pinr.com

This weekend, 48 African heads of state will attend the third ministerial conference of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (F.O.C.A.C.) in Beijing. The three-day event is being billed as the largest summit China has hosted in modern history, and Beijing has even invited leaders from the five African states that recognize Taiwan to attend as observers. The summit will host 1,700 delegates, including representatives from private companies and international organizations. The motivations for hosting the extravagant event are clear: China is seeking to diversify its access to natural resources, shore up diplomatic support for Chinese initiatives at the United Nations and other multilateral organizations, and develop markets for its exports.

In many ways, the summit will be a celebration of China's success on all three of these initiatives since F.O.C.A.C.'s founding in 2000. This success has increasingly drawn concern from the West, and competition for access to African commodities has been fierce. In the lead up to the summit, the G7 and World Bank have been critical of China's lending practices to Africa. Similar reactions can be expected to follow the celebration in Beijing. In the long-term, however, China's competition for resources may develop into cooperation on security issues.

Sino-Africa Relations

Fifty years ago, Egypt became the first African country to change its diplomatic recognition from Taiwan to China. This led China to invest in several ideologically motivated infrastructure projects and investments as it pursued diplomatic relations with the rest of the continent. While this bore diplomatic fruit, Beijing's interest in Africa waned in the late 1970s as it focused on rebuilding its domestic economy.

China's rapidly expanding economy fueled its interest in Africa again in the late 1990s. Since 2000, two-way trade has grown from US$10 billion to an expected $50 billion this year. China is Africa's third largest trading partner, behind the United States and France. Oil accounts for a large portion of this trade, as Africa provides one-third of China's oil imports. This is a trend that is likely to continue since China will become more dependent on oil imports in the coming years.

According to customs records, China imported a record volume of oil in September, the latest month for which figures are available. While this may have been in part due to the country's attempts to build emergency stockpiles of oil at a time when oil prices have fallen off from their peak, it is also representative of a trend of rapidly growing demand for foreign oil in China. In 2000, China imported about 4.5 million barrels of oil per day (bpd). In 2006, this figure will likely surpass seven million bpd.

As China moves to secure more energy resources for its expanding economy, it has found difficulties in establishing markets where it must compete directly with the large, Western multinational corporations. For this reason, it has been more willing to invest in less competitive areas -- often in countries where sanctions prevent Western companies from investing. In this sense, Africa is ripe with opportunity.

Sudan provides up to ten percent of China's oil imports, and China has invested heavily in infrastructure for Sudan's oil industry, even though the North African country remains under Western sanctions for its unwillingness to resolve the conflict in Darfur. Angola accepted a $2 billion loan from China instead of implementing the terms imposed by Western lenders in 2004 and has since surpassed Saudi Arabia as China's largest oil supplier. [See: "China and Angola Strengthen Bilateral Relationship"]

In Nigeria, China is pursuing a similar strategy of courting President Olusegun Obasanjo as he comes under fire from Western governments for corruption and the continued violence in the southern delta region. In fact, in the week before the summit, the China Civil Engineering Construction Company announced that it would build a rail line between Lagos and Kano as part of an $8 billion contract. This follows the $2.3 billion that China National Offshore Oil Corporation paid for a stake in the recently discovered Akpo offshore oil and gas field. [See: "The Increasing Importance of African Oil"]

In Kenya, China coupled its oil diplomacy with its One China policy. Chinese President Hu Jintao visited Kenya in April and provided Nairobi with a $13.5 million grant. Kenya expressed its opposition to Taiwan's independence "in any form," and an agreement was reached for China to explore six blocks in north and south Kenya for oil.

Still, Chinese oil imports from Africa are dwarfed by those of the United States. Last year, China imported about 771,000 bpd, while the U.S. imported 2.4 million bpd of African oil, more than it imported from the Middle East. This is one reason that China cannot expect an easy courtship in Africa and is one of the motivations for this weekend's courtship ceremony in Beijing. [See: "Sino-U.S. Energy Competition in Africa"]

China is also interested in securing other resources from Africa, and is using similar methods to secure iron, uranium, copper, as well as agricultural products. Beijing has remained President Robert Mugabe's main lifeline in Zimbabwe, even as the West has isolated his government for defaulting on loans and continued human rights concerns. China's ambassador to Namibia recently announced Beijing's intention to import uranium from the country.

China's focus on securing Africa's natural resources has drawn concern from some African leaders and from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. By focusing on exporting natural resources, African states are missing out on opportunities to diversify their exports. China has made some steps toward addressing these concerns (for example, it is helping Nigeria to launch a satellite); however, China's infrastructure investments rarely contain a transfer of technology agreement -- something Beijing is notorious for enforcing on foreign direct investments in China.

Trade, however, will be a major agenda item this weekend. Primarily, China would like to see more exports of its goods to Africa as more mature markets are developing in pockets around the continent. Chinese telecom and cellular providers have found greater success in African markets since there is less competition. Chinese engineering and construction firms have also benefited greatly from Beijing's willingness to fund infrastructure projects in strategic regions, notably African countries with large natural resource deposits.

China currently has trade agreements with 28 African states under which 190 goods can be exported to China duty-free, mostly unprocessed natural resources. It can be expected that these agreements will be expanded to more countries and a wider variety of goods at this weekend's conference. China has already canceled $10 billion in debt owed by 31 African states, and more cancellations are likely to be announced this weekend. There will also be announcements for new plans to encourage Chinese companies to invest in Africa.

By strengthening two-way trade with Africa, China gains access to more natural resources while developing markets for its exports. These are necessary steps if Beijing is to maintain the economic growth rates that have made China a major world power. In the interest of containing China's rise, Western states have increased their criticism of Chinese trading and aid programs with Africa in the run up to this weekend's summit.

Western Criticism of China's Africa Policies

China has been criticized by Western leaders and the World Bank for its loan practices in Africa. Western leaders have been critical of Chinese lending practices that ignore human rights issues and do not promote transparency in accounting. China's lending practices have helped to support the actions of the Sudanese government in Darfur, funded Mugabe's kleptocratic regime in Zimbabwe, and allowed the Angolan government to avoid implementing anti-corruption measures, according to Western leaders.

The World Bank has raised concerns about China's lending practices following the G7 agreement to cancel $50 billion of debt owed by African states. It claims that China is acting as a "free rider" by providing loans to states that have recently seen their balance sheets greatly improved. The bank claims that countries such as Rwanda and Ghana are in danger of falling back into the cycle of indebtedness because of proposed Chinese loans.

The U.S. Treasury Department also raised concerns over Chinese lending practices just before Henry Paulson, the recently appointed head of the department, visited China in September. A Treasury paper released on September 15 highlights concerns about a $500 million loan to Ghana and $2.3 billion in financing for a dam in Mozambique. On his visit, Paulson called on China to be a "responsible stakeholder" in the international system, although China made no commitment to curb its lending practices. [See: "U.S. Treasury Secretary Paulson's Upcoming Visit to China"]

China has defended its actions by claiming that aid payments should not be tied to politics. Beijing claims that it has promoted human rights issues, and worked with the global community to tackle some of Africa's most intractable problems. It notes that since 1990, China has participated in a total of 12 U.N. peacekeeping operations in Africa, and 1,273 Chinese peacekeepers are currently working for seven U.N. missions in Africa. If the West honored its aid packages after canceling the debt, Beijing claims, then Chinese loans would not be needed in these countries.

China famously claims, "Business is business. We try to separate politics from business." However, after analyzing China's record in Africa, it becomes clear that there is a strategic logic behind China's lending practices. While China is primarily interested in securing natural resources, it also promotes a particular ideology: development before democracy. Beijing is keen to export this model on which it has built its power, and many countries shunned by the West are attracted to this thinking. When China's model is questioned, the response can be harsh.

In the run up to Zambia's elections on September 28, opposition candidate Michael Sata gained strong backing by criticizing Chinese business practices and threatening to renew ties with Taiwan if elected. Miners at the Chambishi copper mine rioted over pay and working conditions earlier this year, and Sata's candidacy tapped into growing resentment to Chinese investments. China warned it would cut diplomatic ties and put investments on hold if Sata were to win the election.

In the end, a divided opposition failed to dislodge the incumbent president, and China's investments remained secure. Antidotal evidence, however, suggests that similar anti-Chinese sentiment is spreading throughout Africa. Cheap Chinese imports threaten the sustainability of domestic manufacturers; working conditions on Chinese-funded infrastructure projects have been criticized; and China has come under fire for importing Chinese labor to complete the projects. Comparable heavy-handed responses from China may become the norm as its business interests draw ire from the poor in Africa. This weekend's summit will allow Beijing to address these concerns in a friendly environment, but it is unlikely to erase the apprehension spreading in Africa.

Conclusion

Beijing's presence in Africa has grown rapidly since the late 1990s, and this weekend's conference will only further strengthen Sino-African ties. New pledges of aid, tariff reductions, incentives for investment, and programs to strengthen cultural ties are expected to come out of the summit. China will specifically be looking to gain access to natural resources needed to maintain its nine percent economic growth rate. By investing in Africa's infrastructure, Beijing also hopes to secure access to developing markets in Africa for its goods. Two-way trade increased by more than 30 percent in 2005, and it is expected to rise a further 25 percent this year.

Politically, China is also keen to gain support from African countries for its agenda in the United Nations and in other multilateral organizations. While China is pursuing a "waiting game" strategy as it realizes its economic and military potential, one of Beijing's goals is to gain support for its vision of a multipolar world order. On this front, China will face tough times. Western aid and investments still far outweigh those of China, and in the mid-term most African states will continue to look to the West for help in constructing sustainable economies. Although European trade with Africa is declining as a percentage of Africa's total trade, it constitutes 32 percent of total trade, while trade with the United States is growing and accounts for about 18 percent.

While the United States and the European Union are likely to view Chinese investments in Africa in terms of competition in the mid-term, there are reasons to believe that the cooperative elements of this relationship may be emphasized in the future. Oil is perhaps the most truly global commodity, and when China develops oil fields from countries otherwise written off by Western companies, this increases the supply to the world market, potentially reducing prices for all importing countries. Also, Chinese dependency on foreign oil will ensure that it works to keep shipping lanes open and secure. While it cannot be expected that Chinese lending practices will be altered significantly in the coming years, the long-term trend shows China moving closer to the West on this issue as well. China is implementing the World Trade Organization's requirements, and as its banking sector liberalizes it can be expected that Beijing will pursue more Western-oriented policies as well.

Report Drafted By:
Adam Wolfe

------------------------

Go to the top of the page
 
+Quote Post
gnuneo
post Nov 5 2006, 05:52 PM
Post #22


Goddess.
*********

Group: Members
Posts: 10,757
Joined: 17-June 02
From: over..... there.
Member No.: 42



QUOTE
China, Africa sign $1.9B in trade deals

By CHARLES HUTZLER, Associated Press Writer 2 hours, 10 minutes ago

BEIJING - China and Africa ended an unprecedented summit Sunday, signing deals worth $1.9 billion and pledging to boost trade and development between the world's fastest-growing economy and its poorest continent.
ADVERTISEMENT

Chinese President
Hu Jintao already had pledged billions of dollars in aid and loans to Africa during the two-day meeting, part of Beijing's efforts to strengthen ties to Africa amid China's search for new oil sources and export markets.

In a declaration read at the end of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation, China and 48 African nations pledged a partnership based on "political equality and mutual trust, economic win-win cooperation and cultural exchanges."

"We hold that the world today is undergoing complex and profound changes, and that the pursuit of peace, development and cooperation has become the trend of the times," Hu said after the biggest diplomatic meeting ever in China.

The event included heads of state from 35 of the 53 African nations, and top officials from 13 others.

"In a new era, China and Africa have common development goals and converging interests which offer a broad prospect for cooperation," Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenawi said in reading out part of the declaration.

"We hold that the establishment of a new type of strategic partnership is both the shared desire and independent choice of China and Africa, serves our common interests and will help enhance solidarity and mutual support and assistance," Egyptian President
Hosni Mubarak said.

The declaration also called on developed nations to increase their help to Africa.

"We urge the developed countries to increase official development assistance and honor their commitments to opening markets and debt relief," the Ethiopian leader said.

The increased assistance from the developed world would include greater financial and technical help to boost Africa's capacity to fight poverty and disasters, and realize its U.N. Millennium Development Goals.

The declaration also called for a bigger role for Africa in the
United Nations.

"Priority should be given to increasing the representation and full participation of African countries in the
U.N. Security Council and other U.N. agencies," it said.

China and Africa had shown their economic potential earlier Sunday by signing more than a dozen trade deals worth $1.9 billion, while a Chinese company announced a $8.3 billion contract to build a railway in Nigeria.

Chinese companies signed 14 agreements with African governments and companies at the conclusion of a conference of Chinese and African entrepreneurs in Beijing, the official Xinhua News Agency said.

The deals cover infrastructure, resources, construction, telecommunications and finance, Xinhua said.

Separately, China Civil Engineering Construction Corp. said it signed a deal on Oct. 30 with Nigeria's transport ministry to build a railway in the West African country, the continent's largest oil producer.

The 817-mile railway will link the southern city of Lagos with Kano in the north. It would be China's largest overseas engineering project by value, the company said on its Web site on Saturday.

Hu on Saturday pledged to double China's aid to Africa from its 2006 level by 2009. He promised $3 billion in loans, $2 billion in export credits and a $5 billion fund to encourage Chinese investment in Africa.

It was not clear if the government's promised $5 billion investment fund played a role in the deals announced Sunday.

African leaders at the meeting said they welcomed Chinese investment and business ties, but Beijing also faced criticism that it is treating Africa like a colonial territory and supports African regimes with poor human rights records.

"Chinese assistance to Africa is sincere, unselfish and has no strings attached," Premier Wen Jiabao said at a gathering of Chinese and African entrepreneurs held as part of the conference.

African nations also said in the declaration that they were committed to a "one-China" policy and opposed Taiwan independence. China and Taiwan split amid civil war in 1949. Beijing considers the self-governing island to be Chinese territory.

China's trade with Africa soared to $39.7 billion last year, four times its 2000 level, according to Wen. He called for efforts to boost that to $100 billion by 2020, and promised to open China's markets wider to African exports.

China's state oil companies are expanding in Africa, signing deals in Nigeria, Angola, Sudan and elsewhere. Manufacturers are trying to expand exports to African markets.

Human rights activists accuse China of supporting governments such as those in Sudan and Zimbabwe that are accused of chronic abuses. African business groups complain about poor treatment by Chinese companies and competition from a flood of low-cost imports.


you would think the africans were sick of colonialism, but it seems their leaders are welcoming a brand new kid on the block waving a bunch of dollahs with no strings attached - but also no tech transfers either.

so a few more backhand built palaces and large accounts in western banks, and china continues to expand its economy without any real political reforms.

the west should get its finger out and start supporting local measures like the grameen bank, which will increase local development and ultimately lead to greater accountability at the top of the stinking greasy poles in these countries - before china ensures its own brand of hyper-capitalism and elite rule charm the african leaders into turning around even the few advances in political and social development achieved in africa.

of course the west won't, because the people who own the capital in the west would prefer to see a 'hostile', hyper-capitalist africa than a friendly democratic one. Thus ideology works its evil minded way.
Go to the top of the page
 
+Quote Post

Reply to this topicStart new topic

 



Lo-Fi Version Time is now: 16th April 2014 - 10:35 PM